Four facets of human life which according to the Indian system
– make us interact with the external world
– form the aim of human existence
– lead to happiness :
Dharma, Kama, Moksha, Artha
Kama – desire that is going out. When desire has to interact, it has to compromise. Therefore there has to be a predictable methodology of interaction for the Kama to lead to the satisfaction. It needs internal paraphernalia that there could be the total satisfaction. (e.g. not any food will satisfy everybody, it can only fill the stomach.)
Moksha – liberation from desire by action. For example, when we’re hungry, we eat and become happy. When we are tired, we sleep and become happy. (Also a wider meaning: when you have the total liberation, you don’t need to worry of any desire.)
Artha – a need for the paraphernalia, i.e. tools for satisfying the desire. For each type of desire, Artha is different. This specificity of procuring the paraphernalia that satisfies us is called Artha.
Dharma – For all this (Kama, Moksha, Artha) we are dependent on the external world. How are we to procure these things to satisfy our needs without antagonizing the society around us? Dharma is the proper way of living by which we can procure the things that are desirable for us without antagonizing the society.
Dharma becomes the dominant drive on the basis of mutual understanding of the interaction. We provide satisfaction to the society, the society provides satisfaction to us. Dharma depends on our age, family situation, personality, responsibility.
The ‘I’ is a combination of suffering and action. (KleshaKarmaVipaka of Patanjali)
Why do people easily welcome sleep? Because then there’s no need to decide, to choose, to worry. Most of the addictions are the substitute for sleep, because people can’t cope with the world. By shutting off of the world (because you don’t want to suffer neither take action), you avoid taking responsibility (schizophrenia is one of the mind’s ways to get out of the reality). This way the Klesha-Karma overwhelms us. In a predictable world the decision making is easy. In this chaotic world the decision making is always hazardous.
Desire and satisfaction happen inside, not outside. The satisfaction is dependent on the coherence of the different functions in Koshas. The Koshas should be healthy. If Koshas are in contradiction, the chaos will appear and we are not able to understand the situation. Our reactions will be accordingly – wrong. We should be able to use our consciousness to operate in and to interact with nature and get the feedback. How to get rid of the interaction on the Kosha level?
Even when Koshas are healthy, one more complexity on the energy level appears, the Gunas:
The consciousness is made of three components.
Sattva, Rajas, Tamas
Matter stays in a place. Energy is always moving. Consciousness is an energy. When it decides, the matter moves. If no direction or no purpose, it just wastes its energy without no useful benefit for us. If harnessed, it should be harnessed to a creative, evolutionary direction -> vertical growth = Sattva.
If you think you can’t grow, you will destroy yourself. The decay is possible when our Rajas is stagnating within the system.
All energy is Rajas. Stagnation of Rajas = Tamas (Inertia).
All matter is Tamas.
Tamas is also essential -it should be used by Rajas to recover itself. Tamas should not conduct your energy, it’s just for control.
Sattva is a directional and benificial way of thinking and acting.
Yoga is to transform Tamas and Rajas in Sattva. Yoga catalyses our activity towards the evolution and condenses the complex evolution within one birth. That’s why it’s painful. We should control our consciousness so that Sattva always dominates, because only then we can go on the path of evolution.
* Narasimha *